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 HAMMARBY SJOSTAD, STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN, 1995 TO 2015

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تاريخ التسجيل : 04/04/2010
البلد /المدينة : bahrain

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مُساهمةموضوع: HAMMARBY SJOSTAD, STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN, 1995 TO 2015   11/6/2016, 22:09

HAMMARBY SJOSTAD, STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN, 1995 TO 2015
BUILDING A `GREEN' CITY EXTENSION
Hammarby Sjöstad has demonstrated how high environmental targets can be met through the use of a well developed masterplan with high levels of investment in infrastructure to support environmentally-friendly housing and resident lifestyles.
Key Points

Incorporating environmental technologies into a new community through a rigorous masterplan
Using competition between developers to spur innovation
Predicting the future community, and adjusting the development when those assumptions prove incorrect
The scope of the Hammarby Sjöstad development

The Hammarby Sjöstad development, when complete, will house 11,000 residential apartments, along with comprehensive provision of new public transport links, leisure facilities and green public spaces. To date 6,600 homes have been built, and the area has been transformed from a polluted ex-industrial site to a popular neighbourhood for young families.
Housing need in Stockholm

In the early 1990s Stockholm's City Planning Administration became aware that the population of the city was growing and predicted that this trend would continue into the new century. The 1999 'city plan' identified several areas across the city for development, the majority of which were ex-industrial sites. These developments were planned to be extensions of the city rather than new suburbs in order to meet the growing demand for urban living.
Large-scale housing development in the post-war era had resulted in an extra one million homes in Sweden. However these suburban developments proved to be unsustainable and today tend to house higher concentrations of deprived communities than other parts of Stockholm. The City Planning Administration was conscious of these problems and was keen to develop new housing gradually in parallel sites across the city, and to high design standards so as to avoid repeating the same problems.
Predicting the future population

In the 1960s many residents of Stockholm had moved out from the city into more rural areas in what became known as the 'green wave'. At that time the general consensus was that rural lifestyles were more environmentally harmonious. Gradually that consensus changed and many began to value the benefits of city living, of public transport provision and higher density housing. The City Planning Administration forecast initially that many of the residents who would come to live in these new developments would be older people who had left in the 'green wave' and would now come back to the city.
Olympic catalyst

Hammarby Sjöstad was intended to form part of Stockholm's bid to be the host city for the 2004 Summer Olympic Games. The bid aimed to be the most environmentally sustainable games ever held. Though the bid was unsuccessful it acted as a catalyst to drive forward the early stages of the design and planning of the site. When the bid failed the city authorities decided to continue with the development and use it as a pilot for environmentally-friendly housing development in order to meet strong demand for new housing.
Setting targets for Hammarby Sjöstad

The design and development of Hammarby Sjöstad was overseen by two of the city authority departments, the City Development Administration and the City Planning Administration. They worked with a number of architecture firms and 40 building contractors to deliver the masterplan.
At the project's inception the land in Hammarby Sjöstad was privately owned. The area had fallen into disuse and had attracted a number of industrial squatters. The unregulated nature of this industrial activity had contributed further to the pollution of the site, which had reached such a critical point that the local eco-system was at risk of collapse.
'Closed loop' infrastructure

Following the purchase of the land by the city authorities a masterplan was drawn up which concentrated on the infrastructure for the project, including new public transport routes, district heating and cooling and an underground waste collection system for the development as a whole. The masterplan included some ambitious environmental targets, including average car ownership of only 0.5 cars per unit, and for the project as a whole to be twice as 'green' as other similar projects in Stockholm. The infrastructure systems put in place were designed as 'closed loop' systems for water, waste and energy which feed each other and therefore reduce the amount of energy and resources needed to run them. Particular elements of this infrastructure which helped the project to meet its environmental targets are:
two new bus routes (innercity buses are fuelled by bio-gas)







 


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اللهم إني سامحت كل من أغتابني أو ذكرني بسوء في


غيبتي وأسألك في ذلك الأجر والمغفرة بلوغ مراتب المحسنين

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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Admin


تاريخ التسجيل : 04/04/2010
البلد /المدينة : bahrain

بطاقة الشخصية
المجلة:

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: HAMMARBY SJOSTAD, STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN, 1995 TO 2015   11/6/2016, 22:13



Hammarby sjöstad (Hammarby Lake City) is an urban development project directly south of Stockholm’s South Island. This is no doubt the most referenced and visited spot among Scandinavian examples of implemented eco-friendly urban developments. Hammarby is included in many publications, for example in the recent Ecological Design by Nancy Rottle (2011). There are 13 000 visitors a year from all over the world.
Stockholm. Location of Hammarby
The original plan of Hammarby was to develop the former industrial area to an ecological sports arena and athlete’s village – the aspiration was to develop this area for the Olympics 2012. When the bid was won by London the plans were changed and instead the Stockholm municipality – together with a number of construction companies – decided to make this the first Ecocity district in Stockholm for the first millennium. (The other was Western Harbourin Malmö which was displayed during the National Residential Fair 2001). The district is developed around Hammarby Sjö (Lake) and when it is finished it will contain around 1 000 apartments for more than 26 000 inhabitants, with 6 m2work space/inhabitant.
Model of Hammarby Sjöstad Photo: Maria Ignatieva (taken in Hammarby Sjöstad environmental information centre).
The Hammarby model
One new feature of the Ecodistrict, which has won international recognition, was to integrate several infrasystems in the planning from the very beginning: technical infrastructure, mobility and communication infrastructure, building infrastructure and to some extent green-blue infrastructure. Another strong feature is the system of interdisciplinary planning of physical flows of energy, water and waste. The Hammarby model is today mimicked around the world — e.g. in the Caofeidian Ecocity development in China and in the Swedish SWECO consultant concept Symbiocity in Brasil.
Fragment of Hammarby Sjöstad. Photo by Maria Ignatieva taken in Hammarby Sjöstad environmental information centre. Eco duct is visible in the right corner of this picture.
The Hammarby model includes energy conservation measures in which the goal is to reduce heat consumption by 50% and use electricity more efficiently compared to the Swedish average. The share of renewable energy was also intended to be considerably higher than the Swedish average – using bioenergy and incineration of local waste to produce both locally generated heat and co-generated electricity. Large-scale local wastewater and stormwater harvest and filtration were also implemented. Stormwater devices have high aesthetical quality, which is an important factor in the livability of the neighborhood.
Stormwater management system. Photos: Maria IgnatievaStormwater management system. Photos: Maria Ignatieva
One of the most famous features of the Hammarby model was the implementation of a high-tech waste sorting and waste transportation system, also linked to the local energy production in Stockholm. The most spectacular technical system is perhaps the vacuum waste suction system of various household waste functions (including, for example, burnable and compostable waste). In this system, which is implemented all over the district, filled waste bags are intermittently transported to sub-stations in the periphery of the district, which results in markedly efficient waste collection and no need for waste-lorries to enter the residential areas at all.
A more sustainable mobility and communications infrastructure
Hammarby sjöstad is the first district in half a century in which a tram-line was built as the main commuting traffic mode and the first tram-line ever which was outlined as a cross connection in the southern part of Stockholm. Other features of the sustainable local transport system include an attractive pedestrian and bicycle network, a large carpooling system, a popular ferry connecting the Hammarby sjöstad with Stockholm Downtown’s South Island.
Hammarby sjöstad tram. Photo: Per BergHammarby sjöstad ferry Upper Photo: Per Berg
Lower Photo: Maria Ignatieva

A dense green-blue city district with basically positive aesthetic qualities
Hammarby sjöstad has been planned with a dense settlement structure with typically 4-5 story buildings in a compact neighbourhood outline, but with reasonably spacious green courtyards. The moderate height of the houses and the sufficiently spacious neighbourhoods allow for both wind-shielded and sunny inner courtyards with ample possibilities and incentives to develop both inviting entrance green and common courtyard green, and facilitating small-scale cultivation in micro-garden plots or small greenhouses. There are also established green roofs which are an important part of the stormwater system as well as providing important habitat. The area is, at a larger scale, linked to one of the green wedges – the Nacka Wedge with a large ski-slope, vast forests, small fields and several lakes.
View of the ski slope Photo: Maria IgnatievaEco duct connecting Hammarby with the nearby green wedge. Photo Maria IgnatievaLarge parts of the southern Lake shore was planted with reeds where a popular system of recreational boardwalks was built. Photo: Maria IgnatievaLarge parts of the southern Lake shore was planted with reeds where a popular system of recreational boardwalks was built. Photo: Maria Ignatieva
Other district green areas of importance are the Luma-park, the Oak park and the Sjöstads parterre. In Oak Park there are quite a few very old oaks trees which have the highest historical, ecological and aesthetical values.
Hammarby sjöstad features many aesthetic qualities: the traffic planning has created a good soundscape with a low level of noise, allowing attractive sounds to enrich the residents’ living environments. The first phases of the Lake City neighbourhoods are both wind protected and offer sunny courtyard and public space areas. The local areas in Hammarby are easy to keep clean, to maintain (e.g., green and blue elements) and the whole district has an attractive background fragrance due to lack of garbage, much green structure, soil surfaces, lake and designed streams.
Locals and visitors enjoy and appreciate good landscape architecture design in Hammarby. Photo: Maria IgnatievaLocals and visitors enjoy and appreciate good landscape architecture design in Hammarby. Photo: Maria IgnatievaOld oak tree. Photo: Maria Ignatieva
An evolving Sea City service structure
Slowly the commercial and municipal services are developing in Hammarby sjöstad. From the beginning it featured a number of restaurants and cafés, whereas the general stores where developed more slowly. This may have been an advantage as the expected wealthy senior population was not the dominant resident category in the Hammarby. Instead the sjöstad mainly attracted young families without or with one child. The result was an initial lack of stores for children and families, municipal services (schools and nurseries) and appropriate green areas. The sjöstads parterre is an important common open space – even if it is mainly restricted to adjacent neighbourhoods and lacks several pedestrian path qualities with cafés and 







 


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اللهم إني سامحت كل من أغتابني أو ذكرني بسوء في


غيبتي وأسألك في ذلك الأجر والمغفرة بلوغ مراتب المحسنين

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
http://eng-art.montadarabi.com
 
HAMMARBY SJOSTAD, STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN, 1995 TO 2015
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